Is the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem the one mentioned in the Qu’uran?

INTRODUCTION: Since 1967, when Israel regained control of Jerusalem and the Temple Mount after the Six-Day War, there has been a concerted effort on the part of the ‘Palestinian’ authorities to stir up religious fervor, using the false claim that Israel is intending to destroy the al-Asqa Mosque while simultaneously advancing their claim that the entire Temple Mount is sacred to Islam. By creating and promoting their own version of “Palestinian history“, they seek to (1) create an Arab connection to the Temple Mount which predates the Jewish one and  (2) incite violence to forcibly remove the Temple Mount from Israeli control.

A lecturer with the Department of Arabic at Bar-Ilan University and expert in military intelligence, Arab political discourse and Arab mass media recently raised some doubt as to whether the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem is same al-Aqsa Mosque mentioned in the Qu’uran. If it is not, that would shed a very different light on ‘Palestinian’ claims that the Temple Mount is the 3rd holiest site in Islam.

Jordanian Tourist Map from 1965

Jordanian Tourist Map - only al-asqaLast week, an official Jordanian tourist map from 1965 that is part of a large collection of maps of Israel owned by Chaim Steinberger of New York City was seen, photocopied and written about by Dr. Mordechai Kedar this past Thursday, (August 11, 2016) in the Israeli national news, Arutz Sheva.

At first glance, it seems like an ordinary tourist map of Jerusalem – but this map was drawn by a Jordanian, Abd al-Rahman Rassas who worked as an official surveyor for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the map bears the words:

recommended and approved by the official Jordanian Tourist Authority“.

To understand the significance, it is important to understand the political context under which it was made. It was drawn and published two years before the 1967 Six Day War – when East Jerusalem and the Temple Mount were still being illegally occupied by the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.  This map produced by Jordanians shows the Temple Mount (by its Arabic name al-Haram al-Sharif) as being located on Mount Moriah and indicates the “al Aqsa Mosque” as a building on the southern end of al-Haram al-Sharif – with no notable significance to Islam;

“In other words, thirty years before the peace agreement between Israel and the Kingdom of Jordan, the Jordanians identified al Aqsa as no more than an edifice on the southern end of al-Haram al-Sharif, which in turn is built on Mount Moriah.”

– Dr. Mordechai Kedar, Arutz Sheva, August 11, 2016

Dr. Kedar sheds further light by mentioning that the al-Aqsa mosque is only mentioned once in the Qu’uran in Surah 17:1, about the al-Isra – the “night journey” that the prophet was to have taken from Mecca;

Exalted is he who took his servant by night from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-Masjid al- Aqsa, whose surroundings we have blessed, to show him of our signs. Indeed, he is the hearing, the seeing.

Surah Al-Isra 17:1, Qu’uran

There were many mosques in and around Ji’Irrana, Saudi Arabia but there are two in particular; one called al-Masjid al-Adna, meaning the “closer mosque” and the other called al-Masjid al-Aqsa, meaning the “farther mosque” and while later commentaries such as the al-Jallalayn maintain that “the furthest mosque” (al-masgid al-aqsa) is in Jerusalem, Dr. Kedar says that according to the Islamic source Kitab al-Maghazi, ibn Umar Wāqidī states that the al-Aqsa mosque mentioned in the Qu’uran is near Mecca on the Arabian peninsula   between Taaf and Mecca, and not on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.

Furthermore, Dr. Kedar provides an explanation as to how and when the al-Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem came into prominence.

The first Islamic Empire, the Umayyad Empire (661-750 CE) was Sunni  and mercilessly persecuted the Shias.  In 651 CE, Abd allah ibn al-Zubayr was named Caliph (Islamic leader of the Islamic Empire) and inʿ682 CE he prevented the Sunni Umayyads who ruled Damascus from fulfilling the required annual Haj pilgrimage to Mecca. Since the Haj is one of the five basic Islamic commandments, Abd al-Malik, the Sunni Umayyad Caliph, needed an alternative site for the pilgrimage and settled on Jerusalem, which was then under his control. 

According to Dr. Kedar, in order to establish a basis for the “holiness” of Jerusalem in Islam, the Caliphs of the Ummayad dynasty invented many ‘traditions’ (known as fadha’il bayt al-Maqdis), upholding the value of Jerusalem, which would justify pilgrimage to Jerusalem for the faithful Muslims. Thus was al-Masjid al-Aqsa was “transported” to Jerusalem.

It is apparent when looking at the 1965 Jordanian tourist map, the  al-Aqsa Mosque on the southern end of Temple Mount is hardly mentioned and is certainly was not highlighted as an Islamic holy site. Further support that this was not historically considered an Islamic holy site can be found in an earlier post on this site, titled “Is the Temple Mount Really Islam’s Holiest Site?” Photographs of the Temple Mount taken in the late 1900’s by Felix Bonfils (1831-1885) clearly show the Temple Mount complex (where the al-Aqsa Mosque is) as having been very neglected under Ottoman (Muslim) rule.  

Both of these lend support to the Dr. Kedar’s assertion that the al-Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem is not the al-Aqsa Mosque of the Qu’uran.

Dr. Mordechai Kedar is a senior lecturer in the Department of Arabic at Bar-Ilan University and served in IDF Military Intelligence for 25 years, specializing in Arab political discourse, Arab mass media, Islamic groups and the Syrian domestic arena.

Final Thoughts…

It was only after the Six Day War in June 1967 that Arab claims to the Temple Mount began – after East Jerusalem and the Temple Mount were in Jewish hands for the first time in 2000 years. Since that time, ‘Palestinian’ authorities have sought to (1) create an Arab connection to the Temple Mount which predates the Jewish one and  (2) incite violence with the goal of forcibly removing the Temple Mount from Israeli control.

If the al-Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount is not the same al-Aqsa Mosque mentioned in the Qu’uran, then it is just another mosque like many throughout the Middle East and the Temple Mount is not Islam’s 3rd holiest site.

This 1956 map produced by Jordanians which shows labels the Temple Mount (by its Arabic name al-Haram al-Sharif) on Mount Moriah and indicates the “al Aqsa Mosque” simply as a building on the southern end of al-Haram al-Sharif – with no notable significance to Islam, seems to support the idea that the al-Aqsa Mosque only became of importance to the ‘Palestinians’ after 1967.

Furthermore, it would account for the tremendous disrepair [see earlier post] of the entire Temple Mount complex under the Ottoman Turks (who were Muslims) – as it was of no special significance to Islam.


UPDATE: Be sure to read our most recent article about how a historic Arab-Muslim document from the supreme authority in Jerusalem blatantly contradicts the Palestinian Authority’s claim that the Temple Mount was never a Jewish site: http://www.morehasbara.com/2016/08/19/muslim-challenge-to-the-palestinian-authoritys-claims/

 

 

 

Terrorism – what delineates radical Islamists from moderate Muslims

Some say that acts of terrorism such as we saw in Nice, France on July 14th or on a train in Germany on July 18th, and have seen in recent days in Tel Aviv, Brussels, Paris, Orlando, San Bernardino, Istanbul, and Lahore were never commanded by Allah – despite the fact that numerous Islamic texts (Qu’uran, Hadiths, Tafsirs) say otherwise. In this article, we look at terrorism in light of what Islamic texts say and the difference between how radical Islamists (Jihadis) interpret those texts and how moderate Muslims do.

As mentioned in an earlier post, moderate Muslims define the violent passages of Islamic texts in the context of less violent ones, concluding that violent ones should not be taken literally. Radical Islamists / Jihadis determine which Islamic texts apply and what violent behaviour is appropriate.

So lets look at a few texts that radical Islamists act upon, in accordance with the Doctrine of Abrogation (see earlier post, “A Difference of Interpretation – the distinction between moderate Muslims and Jihadis“).

(1) Allah commanded Muhammed to fight against unbelievers;

“It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: I have been commanded to fight against people, till they testify to the fact that there is no god but Allah, and believe in me (that) I am the messenger (from the Lord) and in all that I have brought. And when they do it, their blood and riches are guaranteed protection on my behalf except where it is justified by law, and their affairs rest with Allah.”   
Sahih Muslim, The Book of Faith (Kitab Al-Iman), Book 1: Hadith 33:31
“It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah said: I have been commanded to fight against people till they testify that there is no god but Allah, that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, and they establish prayer, and pay Zakat and if they do it, their blood and property are guaranteed protection on my behalf except when justified by law, and their affairs rest with Allah.”
Sahih Muslim, The Book of Faith (Kitab Al-Iman), Book 1: Hadith 33:33
 (2) Muhammed himself commanded Muslims to fight against infidels, idolaters, and unbelievers.
“Slay the idolaters wherever you find them”
Qur’an 9:5
 
“Fight those who believe not in Allah”
Qur’an 9:29

The Tafsir on Qur’an 9:30 says that Allah encourages fighting Jews and Christians;

“Fighting the Jews and Christians is legislated because they are idolaters and disbelievers. Allah the Exalted encourages the believers to fight the polytheists, disbelieving Jews and Christians, who uttered this terrible statement and utter lies against Allah, the Exalted. As for the Jews, they claimed that Uzayr was the son of God, Allah is free of what they attribute to Him. As for the misguidance of Christians over Isa, it is obvious.”
Tafsir Ibn Kathir (on Qur’an 9:30)

Jews and Christians are referred in many Islamic texts as “People of the Book” and are considered “unbelievers” and the Qu’uran, Hadiths, and Tafsirs have much to say about how they are to be treated.

In Muslim lands operating under Sharia [Islamic] law, Jews and Christians (1) may be given the choice to pay the Jiziya tax (a yearly tax historically levied by Islamic states on certain non-Muslim subjects) which would then make them dhimmis (second class citizens that give deference to the Muslim majority and live under Islamic law (Sharia) or (2) they may be killed.

Islamic texts command Muslims to fight “polytheists” – which explains the massacre of Yazidi at Sinjar Mountain, in Iraq in August 2014. Radical Islamists consider Yazidi polytheists, along with Hindus and Buddists. They also view Christians who call Jesus “God” to be “polytheists“, because the fundamental tenant of Islam, the Shahada says;

“There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah”.
By calling Jesus “God”, and calling the Holy Spirit “God”, Christians violate the first shahada (also called the tahlīl), i.e. “there is no god but Allah”, making Christians “polytheists”.

Idolaters” include people such as Hindus and Buddhists, and can include Yazidi and Christians (if they follow a tradition that includes carved images of Biblical figures).

Muslims killing other Muslims comes under the heading of “infidels” (e.g. Sunnis killing Shia, killing moderate Muslims).

(3) Muslims are commanded to kill any Muslim who coverts to any other religion;

 

“Allah’s Messenger said, “If anyone changed his Islamic religion, then kill him.”
Sahih al-Bukhari 6922

What about Jihad?

Jihad (Arabic جهاد‎‎) means to “strive, apply oneself, struggling, and persevere” and is viewed very differently by radical Islamists / Jihadis and moderate Muslims. More on that below.
Historically, different Islamic scholars defined “jihad” differently, for example, Ibn Rushd (1126 – 1198 CE) defined 4 types of jihad; (i) by the heart, (ii) by the tongue, (iii) by the hand and (iv) by the sword”. Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya (1292–1350 CE) defined 4 types of jihad as being (i) against oneself, (ii) against Satan, (iii) against disbelievers and (iv) against the “hypocrites”.
Today, “jihad” is defined with respect to its two parts;
(1) the “greater jihad“: which is seen as an inner spiritual struggle.
(2) the “lesser jihad“: which is seen as an outer physical struggle against the enemies of Islam and which may take a violent or non-violent form.

Moderate Muslims focus on the internal spiritual struggle to be a “good Muslim” (“greater jihad“) and on performing the Five Pillars of Islam;

Five Pillars of Islam

(1) voluntary declaration of the Shahada (“there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah”).
(2) Salahcompulsory prayer offered 5 times a day (before sunrise, midday/mid-afternoon, mid-afternoon/before sunset, after sunset, after nightfall/before dawn).
(3) Sawmobligatory fasting from dawn to sunset during the month of Ramadan.
(4) Zakahcompulsory annual welfare contribution from annual savings i.e. 2.5% of cash and precious metals and jewellery and a percentage of animals and crops.  This is not “charity”; charity is optional, however the zakah can be spent on helping the poor, the oppressed, or supporting Islamic organizations.
(5) Hajj – fulfilling the obligation to make the pilgrimage to “the house of Allah” in Mecca, Saudi Arabia at least once during one’s life, provided there is the means to do so.

The Lesser Jihad

As we mentioned in a previous post, moderate Muslims define the violent passages of Islamic texts in the context of less violent ones, concluding that violent ones should not be taken literally.  As a result, “lesser jihad“, the outer physical struggle against the enemies of Islam may be expressed as educating non-Muslims about Islam, or by supporting Islamic groups that help Muslims in countries where they are felt to be oppressed.

For radical Islamists / Jihadis, the Doctrine of Abrogation determines which passages of Islamic texts apply and defines (1) what “outer physical struggle against the enemies of Islam” (“lesser jihad”) ‘looks like’ and (2) who those enemies of Islam are.
It looks like Nice, France and Germany. 
It looks like Orlando and Tel Aviv.
It look like Brussels and Paris.
It looks like San Bernardino, Istanbul and Lahore.

For radical Islamists, the enemies of Islam are the unbelieversidolaters, polytheists and infidels; Jews, Christians, Hindus, Buddhists, Yazidi and moderate Muslims. It is the lesbian, gay, transgender and queer. It is anyone who would be out celebrating democracy and freedom on Bastille Day, the 4th of July and on Canada Day – rather than voluntarily submitting to the Islamic rule of a Caliphate and the dictates of Sharia law.

It is you.
It is me.
Terrorism is aimed at us.
[For more information, please read “A Difference of Interpretation – the distinction between moderate Muslims and Jihadishttp://www.morehasbara.com/2016/06/14/ja-difference-of-interpretation-what-separates-moderates-from-jihadis/]

Putting the Pieces Together

 These pictures speak for themselves

and will tell an emerging ‘story’

which ought to be known by every Jew and Christian

around the world

It is not a bedtime story

and not, at first glance, a “happily ever after” story (although the last picture offers a clue as to how many believe it will end)

This is not a “religious” story

If you are an atheist this is still your “story”

New ‘chapters’ are being written and read each day

and retold, in part – on news feeds and the media;

. . . in Europe

. . . in the Middle East

. . . in the USA

These photos consider “what happens next

with no ‘spoiler alert’ –

when impersonal data becomes very personal

& touches each of us –

our families

our neighbors

our country

You won’t hear this part of the story

on MSNBC

the BBC

or al-Jeezera 

Let these pictures speak

a thousand words


most of worlds muslims not arab - abdul hye
Surprised? Only 18% of Muslims are Arab

 


 

Muslim population of USA
By percentage, Islam is the 2nd largest religion in the US (currently)

 


Europes Largest Population of Muslims
Already in the news: Germany, France & Belgium

 


 

Estimated Change in Muslim Population
Islam is the only religion expected to increase faster than the world’s population

 


 

size and projected growth - highlighted
By 2050, the projected number of Muslims worldwide will be approaching that of the number of Christians

 


 

Projection that Muslims will outnumber Christians in world 2070 - Pew
Muslims are Expected to Outnumber Christians by 2070

 


 

50% 0f Christians live in 11 countries - Pew research - cropped
50% of the world’s Christians live in these countries (see projected Muslim growth rate for the US)

 


 

53% of world's Muslims live in these 5 countries; see map of Middle East and Israel
53% of world’s Muslims live in these 5 countries (see map of Middle East and Israel, below)

 


 

81% of Jews live in 2 countries - Pew research - cropped
81% of the world’s Jews live in these 2 countries (see projected growth rate of Islam in the US)

 


 

Muslims surrounding Israel - part 1
The “situation in the Middle East” is much more than ‘political’. The role of religion is clear when considering Israel’s neighbors (SLIDE 1)

Muslims surrounding Israel - part 2
The only Jewish state completely surrounded by Muslim countries given to fundamental Islam.  The “situation in the Middle East” is much more than ‘political’. (SLIDE 2)
religion important in Palistinian territories - Copy
Palestinian Territories (HAMAS – offshoot of Muslim Brotherhood), Lebanon (Hezbollah)

 

support for Sharia - Pew Research 2015
Percentage of Muslims who want Islamic Law (Sharia) the rule of law in their own country

 


 

characteristics associated with Westerns by Muslims
The majority of Muslims in Muslim countries view Westerners as selfish, violent, greedy, immoral, arrogant and fanatical

 


 

Islam Israel and the World - Pieces
Some questions to ponder: What if the number of Muslims that endorse violent jihad is larger than 1%? What role does taqiyya play in what is portrayed in the media? What do Jihadis believe about Christians and Jews?

The End: is there a “happily-ever-after ending?

 

Zechariah 14
“The End” – as understood by many Jews and Christians – עולם הבא / Olam HaBah / ‘the age to come’

 

"Silence in the face of evil

is itself evil;

G-d will not hold us guiltless.

Not to speak is to speak

Not to act is to act"


Dietrich Bonhoeffer

 

The link to the previous 3 articles can be found here: http://www.morehasbara.com/2016/06/16/3-articles-on-islam/

3 Articles on Islam

Getting some sense of the actual size of the Muslim population worldwide is important, as is knowing some of what Islam teaches. These three articles provide the needed background to the next post, “Putting the Pieces Together” (link below)

  1. If 99% of Muslims are peaceful, how many is 1%? In the first article we ask the question: ‘if 99% of Muslims in the world really are peaceful, how many make up the 1% that are not? The number is staggering. This article is fully referenced, with 2 illustrations that summarize the data. Please click here to read this first article in the series: http://www.morehasbara.com/2016/06/13/assuming-99-of-muslims-are-peaceful-how-man-is-1-percent/

2. A Difference of Interpretation – what Separates Moderates from Jihadis?- In the next article in this series, we examine the fundamental difference between how Jihadis interpret their holy texts and how moderate Muslims do – and it is more than Jihadis taking texts literally. Please click on the following link to read the second in this series of articles: http://www.morehasbara.com/2016/06/14/ja-difference-of-interpretation-what-separates-moderates-from-jihadis/

3. Taqiyya – the Deliberate Deception of Islam – Important to understand is that all Muslims whether Sunni or Shia are permitted, even encouraged to practice something call taqiyya; which is the use of deliberate deception for the purpose of protecting the Islamic community or oneself.  If you don’t know what taqiyya is please click on the following link to read the third article in this series:
http://www.morehasbara.com/2016/06/15/taqiyya-the-deliberate-deception-of-islam/


Here is the link to “Putting the Pieces Together“. It tells an important story, only in pictures and the above 3 articles provide the context. Please take a few minutes and have a look; http://www.morehasbara.com/2016/06/16/putting-the-pieces-together/

Taqiyya – the Deliberate Deception of Islam

Introduction

Taqiyya (also spelled taqiya, taqiyah or taqiyyah) is deliberate deception that is not only permitted in Islam, but encouraged in order to protect the Muslim community and is a form of defensive jihad*.  Sunnis are permitted to practice taqiyya in dealings with non-Muslims and with Muslims if  being  forced, coerced or threatened. Shias are permitted the practice taqiyya with Muslims, non-Muslims and “in all necessary matters”.  Muslims are encouraged to practice taqiyya when they form a minority of the population (i.e. are outnumbered by non-believers); and are told that they ‘need to guard themselves‘, ‘taking a “security“. The word for “security” is taqiyya and includes pretending to be friendly to non-Muslims. 

*Note: Both defensive jihad and offensive jihad were covered in the previous article, “A Difference of Interpretation – what separates moderates from Jihadis”. [see http://www.morehasbara.com/2016/06/14/ja-difference-of-interpretation-what-separates-moderates-from-jihadis/]

Origins of the Doctrine of Taqiyya

After the prophet Mohammed’s death in 632 AD (C.E.), Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, one of Mohammed’s closest friends was named Caliph (leader of the Islamic community). Some felt that title of Caliph belonged to Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad’s cousin (and adopted son), who was husband of his daughter, Fatima. Supporters of Abu Bakr became the Sunnis and those that supported Ibn Abi became the Shias (Shiites)Abu Bakr was the first Caliph and after his death and the death of his predecessor, Ibn Abi finally did became Caliph, but was murdered in 661 AD. Conflict between the two groups continues until this day.

Since Shia Islam was a minority sect to Sunni Islam, the practice of taqiyya enabled Shias to protect themselves from Sunnis and was not only permitted by the Twelve Imams of Shia Islam but elevated to the level of faith and prayer;

“He who has no taqiyya has no faith”

“he who forsakes taqiyya is like him who forsakes prayer”

taqiyya is the believers shield, but for taqiyya, God would not have been worshipped”

Medoff,L.,"TAQIYA i. In Shiʿism,"  Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2015, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/taqiya-i-shiism

Taqiyya – always permissable with Non-Muslims

Sunnis

Sunni scholars permit the practice of taqiyya in dealings with nonMuslims and when under compulsion and compulsion is defined as protecting one’s belief during extreme circumstances (Arabic: idtirar إضطرار), such as being forced or coerced or threatened and is not limited to concealing one’s faith.

Iqbal, Javid; 'Umar, Muhammad Suhail (2000). The concept of state in Islam: a reassessment (Volume 13 of Iqbal Academy brochure series). Iqbal Academy Pakistan, original from the University of Michigan. p. 12.

SHIAS

Shia scholars permit the practice of taqiyya in interactions with Muslims, non-Muslims and in all necessary matters.

Medoff,L.,"TAQIYA i. In Shiʿism,"  Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2015, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/taqiya-i-shiism

When is Taqiyya Permitted?

Sunnis permit the practice of taqiyya in dealings with non-Muslims and with Muslims if being forced, coerced or threatened (under compulsion). Shias permit the practice with Muslims, non-Muslims and in all necessary matters. 

Most religions encourage their adherents to choose their friends from their own community but the Qur’an goes beyond encouragement and prohibits Muslims from being friends with unbelievers instead of believers. It it doesn’t stop there, however.

The Qur’an instructs Muslims that when they form a minority of the population (such as they do in the West) and are outnumbered by non-Muslims that they are to ‘guard themselves‘, ‘taking a “security  (the word for “security” is taqiyya) against non-Muslims, including pretending to be friendly to them.

“Let not the believers take disbelievers for their friends in preference to believers. Whoso doeth that hath no connection with Allah unless (it be) that ye but guard yourselves against them, taking (as it were) security. Allah biddeth you beware (only) of Himself. Unto Allah is the journeying.”

Qur’an – Surah 3:28

Tafsir Ibn Kathir, which is based on the Hadith (words and actions of Muhammad) explains Surah 3:28 as follows;

“Allah prohibited His believing servants from becoming supporters of the disbelievers, or to take them as comrades with whom they develop friendships, rather than the believers. Allah warned against such behavior when He said, “And whoever does that, will never be helped by Allah in any way,” meaning, whoever commits this act that Allah has prohibited, then Allah will discard him. Similarly, Allah said, “O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as friends, showing affection towards them” until, “And whosoever of you does that, then indeed he has gone astray from the straight path.” 60:1

Ibn Kathir 

Who is Defined as “the Enemies of Allah”?

The enemies of Allah are defined in many Surahs (verses) of the Qur’an, ain the Hadiths and in the Tafsirs (Islamic commentaries). In the Tafsirs pertaining to Surah 3:28 above, the “enemies of Allah” are defined as Jews and Christians;

“O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as friends, they are but friends of each other. And whoever befriends them, then surely, he is one of them” 5:51

Ibn Kathir 

When is Taqiyya Used?

Protection of the Muslim community is a major priority in both Shia and Sunni Islam and forms the basis for defensive jihad (practiced by both).  Moderate Muslims use non-violent means of defensive jihad to order to protect the Muslim community, including writing, speaking and through education and when necessary – through the practice of taqiyya. Defense of the Islamic community permits Muslims to deliberately lie to the non-Muslim community around them.

Muslims are instructed to act as if they are friends with non-Muslimsto show friendship outwardly, but never inwardly – to “smile in the face” and “curse in the heart”.

“Allah said next, (unless you indeed fear a danger from them) meaning, except those believers who in some areas or times fear for their safety from the disbelievers. In this case, such believers are allowed to show friendship to the disbelievers outwardly, but never inwardly. For instance, Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Ad-Darda’ said, “We smile in the face of some people although our hearts curse them.” Al-Bukhari said that Al-Hasan said, “The Tuqyah is allowed until the Day of Resurrection.”

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

from Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Parts 3,4, & 5 (Surat al-Baqarah, verse 253 to Surat an-Nisa, verse 147), pg 142

The same interpretation as that found in Tafsir Ibn Kathir (above) is found in Tafsir al-Jalalayn on Surah 3:28;

Let not the believers take the disbelievers as patrons, rather than, that is, instead of, the believers — for whoever does that, that is, [whoever] takes them as patrons, does not belong to, the religion of, God in anyway — unless you protect yourselves against them, as a safeguard (tuqātan, ‘as a safeguard’, is the verbal noun from taqiyyatan), that is to say, [unless] you fear something, in which case you may show patronage to them through words, but not in your hearts: this was before the hegemony of Islam and [the dispensation] applies to any individual residing in a land with no say in it. God warns you, He instills fear in you, of His Self, [warning] that He may be wrathful with you if you take them as patrons; and to God is the journey’s end, the return, and He will requite you.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

from Tafsir al-Jalalayn -Volume 1, As-Suyuti Jalaludeen , Al-Mahall Jalaludeen, 2014 translation

The Tafsir explains the word for “safeguard” as the verbal noun from taqiyyatan – which is taqiyya (Arabic: تقیة ).

Tafir Ibn Abbas instructs Muslims not to take as hypocrites and disbelievers such as Jews as friends and to speak to them in a friendly way towards them while your hearts dislikes it;

“(Let not the believers take) the believers ought not to take [the hypocrites:] ‘Abdullah Ibn Ubayy and his companions and [disbelievers] the Jews (for their friends) so as to become mighty and honourable (in preference to believers) who are sincere. (Whoso doeth that) seeking might and honour [by taking the hypocrites and disbelievers as friends] (hath no connection with Allah) has no honour, mercy or protection from Allah (unless (it be) that ye but guard yourselves against them) save yourselves from them, taking (as it were) security, saving yourselves from them by speaking in a friendly way towards them with, while your hearts dislikes this. (Allah bideth you beware (only) of Himself) regarding the shunning of unlawful killing, unlawful sex, unlawful property, consuming intoxicants, false testimony and associating partners with Allah. (Unto Allah is the journeying) the return after death.”

Tafir Ibn Abbas

Some final thoughts…

Moderate Muslims will often deny that taqiyya has any role in their religion today, and that Islam is a ‘religion of peace’. The very nature of taqiyya allows for the real possibility that such claims themselves maybe be deliberate deception. Knowing about this practice should cause us (and others) to consider the things we are told very carefully.  We should become in the habit of reflecting on questions such as: ‘what benefit would it be, or what protection would it offer the Islamic community if what we were being told was not true’

Understanding the difference between how Jihadis interpret their holy texts and how moderate Muslims do, is essential. Click here to read the second in this series of 3 articles: http://www.morehasbara.com/2016/06/14/ja-difference-of-interpretation-what-separates-moderates-from-jihadis/

People say “most Muslims are peaceful”, so what if we assumed 99% of Muslims really are peaceful; how many is 1%?  The number is staggering! Click here to read the first of this series of 3 articles on this topic: http://www.morehasbara.com/2016/06/13/assuming-99-of-muslims-are-peaceful-how-man-is-1-percent/

This post called “Putting the Pieces Together” does just that. If you don’t have time to read the other two articles right now, please read this one: http://www.morehasbara.com/2016/06/16/putting-the-pieces-together/

UPDATE: Please read this follow-up article titled “Terrorism – what delineates radical Islamists from moderate Muslims” http://www.morehasbara.com/2016/07/15/terrorism-what-delineates-radical-islamists-from-moderate-muslims/

Content without references was adapted from David Wood, www.answeringmuslims.com